Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to U.S. GAAP as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”).
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these financial statements and accompanying notes in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The Company's significant estimates and assumptions include estimated work performed but not yet billed by contract manufacturers, engineers and research organizations, the valuation of equity and stock-based related instruments, and the valuation allowance related to deferred taxes. Some of these judgments can be subjective and complex, and, consequently, actual results could differ from those estimates. Although the Company believes that its estimates and assumptions are reasonable, they are based upon information available at the time the estimates and assumptions were made. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Cash is potentially subject to concentrations of credit risk. The Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial strength of the depository institutions in which the cash is held.
Fair Value Measurements
ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, provides guidance on the development and disclosure of fair value measurements. Under this accounting guidance, fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.
The accounting guidance classifies fair value measurements in one of the following three categories for disclosure purposes:
The carrying amount of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values.
Cash is maintained in bank deposit accounts, which exceed the federally insured limits of $250,000. The Company does not have any cash equivalents.
Variable Interest Entities
When determining whether a legal entity should be consolidated, the Company first determines whether it has a variable interest in the legal entity. If a variable interest exists, the Company determines whether the legal entity is a variable interest entity (“VIE”) due to either: 1) a lack of sufficient equity to finance its activities, 2) its equity holders lacking the characteristics of a controlling financial interest, or 3) the legal entity being structured with non-substantive voting rights. If the Company concludes that the legal entity is a VIE, the Company next determines whether it is the primary beneficiary due to it possessing both: 1) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance, and 2) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that potentially could be significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE which could be significant to the VIE. If the Company concludes that it is the primary beneficiary, it consolidates the entity.
Equity Method Investment
In 2017, the Company purchased a 25% ownership in Northriver Pharm, LLC (“NRP”) in the amount of $125,000 from existing investors of NRP. NRP is an entity with common ownership with the Company’s former Chief Executive Officer and Founder, who is also the Founder and sole voting member of NRP. The Company evaluated the ownership under VIE guidance and has determined that the Company does not have the power and economics to control the entity and are not the entity most closely associated with NRP.
The Company previously accounted for the investment under the equity method of accounting. However, consistent with equity method accounting guidance, the Company has now discontinued applying the equity method accounting as the investment has been reduced to zero and the Company has not committed to provide further financial support and there is no expected return to profitable operations by NRP.
The Company provides for income taxes using the asset and liability approach. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded based on the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities and the tax rates in effect when these differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company operated as an Alabama limited liability company until its Corporate Conversion. Therefore, the Company passed through all income and losses to its members until this point. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company had a full valuation allowance against deferred tax assets.
The Company is subject to the provisions of ASC 740, Income Taxes. Under ASC 740, consideration is given to the recognition and measurement of tax positions that meet a “more-likely-than-not” threshold. A tax position is a position taken in a previously filed tax return or a position expected to be taken in a future that is reflected in measuring current or deferred income tax assets and liabilities. Tax positions include the Company’s status as a pass-through entity until December 16, 2020 and as a corporation thereafter. The recognition and measurement of tax positions taken for various jurisdictions consider the amounts and probabilities of outcomes that could be realized upon settlement using the facts, circumstances, and information available at the reporting date. The Company has determined that it does not have any material unrecognized tax benefits or obligations as of December 31, 2022 and 2021. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions, if any, in income tax expense. The Company is not currently under examination by the Internal Revenue Service or by state tax authorities and the Company’s tax year remains subject to examination by the tax authorities.
Basic and Diluted Net Income (Loss) per Share
Basic net loss per common share (“EPS”) is computed in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS reflects potential dilution and is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period increased by the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if all potential common shares had been issued and were dilutive. However, potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted EPS to the extent that their effect is anti-dilutive. For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company had 1,924,397 and 1,041,647 options, respectively, and 672,500 and 172,500 warrants, respectively, to purchase common shares outstanding that were anti-dilutive.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. The Company arranges and contracts with third-party contract research organizations (“CROs”), contract development and manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), contractor laboratories and independent consultants. As part of the process of preparing its financial statements, the Company may be required to estimate some of its expenses resulting from its obligations under these arrangements and contracts. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment flows that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided. The Company’s objective is to reflect the appropriate expenses in its financial statements by matching those expenses with the period in which services are rendered. The Company determines any accrual estimates based on account discussions with applicable personnel and outside service providers as to the progress or state of completion. The Company makes estimates of its accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known at that time. The Company’s estimates are dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of CROs, CMOs and other third-party vendors. At the end of each reporting period, the Company compares the payments made to each service provider to the estimated progress towards completion of the related project. Factors that the Company considers in preparing these estimates include the number of patients enrolled in studies, milestones achieved, and other criteria related to the efforts of its vendors. These estimates will be
subject to change as additional information becomes available. Depending on the timing of payments to vendors and estimated services provided, the Company will record prepaid or accrued expenses related to these costs.
The Company recognizes compensation expense relating to share-based awards to employees and directors with a performance condition over the requisite service period if it is probable that the performance condition will be satisfied. For awards to non-employees, the Company recognizes compensation expense in the same manner as if the Company had paid cash for the goods or services. The Company estimates the fair value of options and warrants granted using an options pricing model, see Note 9. Expense is recognized within both research and development and general and administrative expenses and forfeitures are recognized as they are incurred.
Emerging Growth Company Status
The Company is an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards issued subsequent to the enactment of the JOBS Act until such time as those standards apply to private companies. The Company has elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date that is (i) no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided by the JOBS Act. As a result, these financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with the new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (ASC 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The standard eliminates the need for an organization to analyze whether the following apply in a given period: (1) the exception to the incremental approach for intraperiod tax allocation; (2) the exceptions to accounting for basis differences when there are ownership changes in foreign investments; and (3) the exception in interim periods income tax accounting for year-to-date losses that exceed anticipated losses. The ASU also is designed to improve financial statement preparers’ application of income tax-related guidance and simplify U.S. GAAP for (1) franchise taxes that are partially based on income, (2) transactions with a government that result in a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill, (3) separate financial statements of legal entities that are not subject to tax, (4) enacted changes in tax laws in interim periods and (5) certain income tax accounting for employee stock ownership plans and affordable housing projects. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2021. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40). ASU 2020-06 eliminates the beneficial conversion and cash conversion accounting models for convertible instruments. It also amends the accounting for certain contracts in an entity’s own equity that are currently accounted for as derivatives because of specific settlement provisions. The new guidance also modifies how particular convertible instruments and certain contracts that may be settled in cash or shares impact the diluted EPS computation. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted. ASU 2020-06 allows companies to adopt the guidance through either a modified retrospective method of transition or a fully retrospective method of transition. The Company is continuing to evaluate the impacts that ASU 2020-06 will have on its financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef